18 Sep Exosomes: Biological function, Clinical Potential & Utility
What are exosomes?
Exosomes are messenger particles that release naturally from a cell. These particles are responsible for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes carry genetic information and proteins to cells throughout your body, creating paths for communication between cells. These messenger cells can release growth factors and other beneficial processes.
Also known as extracellular vesicles (particles that release naturally from a cell that cannot replicate), they are responsible for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes are released naturally from cells upon the fusion of a discontinuous closed membrane system, also known as the intermediate endocytic compartment. Although exosomes are roughly the same size (40-100 nm) as ectosomes, they are different species of vesicles.
When used in exosome treatment, these biomolecules can be specifically targeted to stimulate a desired response in the body. This innovative treatment has shown great promise in various medical applications, including cancer treatment, tissue repair, and immune modulation.
Suppose you are considering exosome treatment for a medical condition. In that case, it is important to research and consult a qualified healthcare professional to determine if this option is right for you.
Exosomes are tiny, single-membrane organelles of ∼30 to ∼200 nm diameter, released in high quantities from rapidly growing cells, including stem cells and t and B cells.
Exosomes contain an array of membrane-associated proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and glycoconjugates and are believed to facilitate intercellular communication through the paracrine effect. Exosomes may also be used by stem cells to detect their environment and repair damaged tissue.
Where are exosomes derived?
Exosomes are derived from cells in the body. Many cells produce and release them, including immune cells, t cells, dendritic cells, and neurons. Exosomes are formed within cells through exocytosis, during which the cell’s endosomes (small, membrane-bound compartments within the cell) fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.
Once they are released into the extracellular space, exosomes can be taken up by other recipient cells and affect their functions. This process is thought to play a role in intercellular communication and is being investigated as a potential mechanism for the transfer of various molecules, including proteins, RNA, and DNA, between target cells.
Cell derived exosomes have been found to contain various types of molecules, such as proteins, lipids, and genetic material, that are specific to the cells that produced them. These exosomes can be taken up by other cells, even if they are far away from where the exosomes were released. When this happens, the molecules within the exosomes can alter the function of the recipient cells.
What is the biological function of exosomes?
Exosomes are thought to play a role in regulating complex intracellular pathways, and research has suggested that they may have a variety of functions in the body. Some studies have suggested that exosomes may be involved in the immune system’s response to infection and the development and operation of the nervous system.
For example, exosomes have been shown to contain a variety of immune-related molecules, such as cytokines and antigens, and to be involved in the immune system’s response to infection by influencing a recipient cell.
Exosomes have also been shown to be involved in the development and function of the nervous system. They have been found to contain a variety of molecules that are important for the development and maintenance of neurons, such as growth factors and signaling proteins. In addition, exosomes are involved in the communication between neurons and other cells in the nervous system.
Overall, the exact functions of exosomes are still being investigated, and more research is needed to understand their role in health and disease fully.
Research states that Exosomes are primarily messenger molecular mechanisms According to a 2019 study published in the Cell and Bioscience Journal, Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released into surrounding body fluids upon the fusion of multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles derived from target cells were shown to carry cell-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and genetic materials and can be selectively taken up by neighboring or distant cells far from their release, reprogramming the recipient cells upon their bioactive compounds.
Exosome therapy involves using exosomes, small vesicles that are naturally produced by stem cells, to deliver therapeutic molecules to specific cells in the body. These exosomes contain a range of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, that can be used to target specific cells and elicit a desired response. This is a new medical treatment that is being explored for a variety of potential applications.
Exosome therapy is gaining in popularity within the United States. Some doctors believe there may be benefits with the administration of exosomes. This theory may have originated from studies that suggest the link between the health benefits of mesenchymal stem cells and exosomes. Exosomes are released naturally from mesenchymal stem cells, and MSCs have the highest amount of exosomes out of any cell.
According to a 2016 study conducted James R Edgar and colleagues, we could be seeing an increased interest for Exosome therapy for a few reasons:
1). Exosomes are thought to provide a means of intercellular communication and transmission of macromolecules between cells.
2). Exosomes have been attributed roles in the spread of proteins, lipids, mRNA, miRNA, and DNA and as contributing factors in the development of several diseases.
3). Exosomes have been proposed to be useful vectors for drugs because they are composed of cell membranes rather than synthetic polymers, and as such, could be better tolerated by the host.
Exosomes therapy has shown promise in a wide range of medical applications, including cancer treatment, tissue repair, and immune modulation. It is an exciting area of research that has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach many diseases and conditions. If you are interested in learning more about exosomes therapy, it is important to do your research and consult with a qualified healthcare professional to determine if this treatment option is right for you.
Exosomes have been found to have properties that allow them to regulate complex intracellular pathways, and this has led to the exploration of their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions and cancer. Their ability to modify the activity of specific cells and pathways within the body makes exosomes a promising therapeutic option for a wide range of conditions.
IRB Indications for Exosomes Chart HERE
What is the difference between stem cell therapy and exosomes?
Stem cells and exosomes are two distinct types of cells or cell products that are being studied for their potential use in medical treatments. Here are some key differences between the two:
1). Origin: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into a variety of specialized cell types. They are found in various tissues in the body and can be isolated and grown in the laboratory. Exosomes, on the other hand, are small, membrane-bound vesicles that are produced and released by cells in the body. They are formed within the cell through a process called exocytosis, during which the cell’s endosomes (small, membrane-bound compartments within the cell) fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.
2). Function: Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types and are being studied for their potential use in regenerative medicine. Exosomes, on the other hand, are thought to play a role in intercellular communication and have been proposed as potential mediators of various physiological and pathological processes. They have been found to contain a variety of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, and to be involved in the transfer of these molecules between cells.
3). Potential therapeutic applications: Stem cells are being studied for their potential use in a wide range of medical treatments, including the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. Exosomes, on the other hand, are being explored as a potential means of delivering therapeutic molecules to specific cells in the body. They have been proposed as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease.
Stem cells are a popular therapeutic tool promoting exosome secretion
Stem cell therapy has shown particular potential for the treatment of chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia, degenerative diseases, and Lyme disease. These conditions are often characterized by inflammation, and exosomes have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties that make them a promising therapeutic option.
Exosomes are produced and released by many types of cells in the human body, including immune cells, cancer cells, and stem cells. While their role in intercellular communication is well established, the exact functions of exosomes are still not fully understood. Further research is needed to fully understand the role of exosomes in health and disease.
Overall, stem cells and exosomes are distinct types of donor cells or cell products that are being studied for their potential use in medical treatments. Stem cells have the ability to invoke a positive immune response, while dendritic cell derived exosomes act more as a messenger cell will lipid and protein composition.
While stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types and are being explored for their potential use in regenerative medicine, exosomes are thought to play a role in cell biology through intercellular communication and are being explored as a potential means of delivering therapeutic molecules to specific cells in the body.
Mesenchymal stem cells may have the ability to repair tissue, modulate the immune system, and promote an anti-inflammatory response in patients. In an article published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Zhang et al. state that “Several studies have reported that exosomes have functions similar to MSCs; however, the mechanisms are still not fully understood and remain controversial.” (2)
Exosomes and Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can self-renew and can be isolated from various tissues. They have been tested widely in clinical trials due to their multitude of biological functions, including; differentiation, tissue repair, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), first investigated in a 2010 finding, showed that MSCs were able to produce higher amounts of exosomes than other cells. (2)
According to Zhang, exosomes are involved in cell to cell communication, and some researchers hypothesize that they are the paracrine effectors of MSCs. Many types of cells secrete exosomes, including T and B cells and stem cells. Although Exosomes are essential for cellular communication, their functions remain unknown.
(1) Edgar, James R. “Q&A: What Are Exosomes, Exactly?” BMC Biology, BioMed Central, 13 June 2016, https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.
(2) Yu, Bo, et al. “Exosomes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 3, July 2014, pp. 4142–4157., doi:10.3390/ijms15034142.
(3) Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Liu, H., & Tang, W. H. (2019, February 15). Exosomes: Biogenesis, biologic function and clinical potential – cell & bioscience. BioMed Central. Retrieved February 3, 2022, from https://cellandbioscience.
(4) Pegtel DM, Gould SJ. Exosomes. Annu Rev Biochem. 2019 Jun 20;88:487-514. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-